Giao Dịch Hàng Hóa Là Gì?

Giao dịch hàng hóa tương lai (hay còn gọi Phái sinh hàng hóa) là giao dịch trong đó khách hàng thực hiện mua, bán một khối lượng hàng hóa tại mức giá xác định và việc giao nhận hàng được thực hiện tại một thời điểm định trước  trong tương lai.

Các yếu tố của giao dịch như khối lượng, thời gian đến hạn, tiêu chuẩn hàng hóa, mức giá… được các Sàn giao dịch quy định

Mặc dù sự phát triển mạnh mẽ vượt bậc của hàng hóa phái sinh chỉ thực sự diễn ra vào nửa cuối thế kỷ 20, song công cụ tài chính này đã xuất hiện từ khá sớm trong lịch sử loài người.Dù rằng những dạng thức tồn tại đầu tiên của nó là khá thô sơ.

Người ta đã tìm thấy dấu vết của những giao dịch mang dáng dấp của hợp đồng kỳ hạn từ thời Hy Lạp cổ đại, rồi sau đó ở thời kỳ Trung cổ tại Châu Âu.

Đến những năm 1690, thị trường gạo Dojima ra đời ở Nhật Bản, đánh dấu sự hình thành thị trường hợp đồng hàng hóa tương lai đầu tiên trên thế giới.

Ban đầu thị trương này sinh ra giúp cho người nông dân nhật định được mức giá bán của sản phẩm gạo của mình trong tương lai để tập trung vào sản xuất cho tốt ko chịu rủi ro về biến động giá.

Từ những công cụ đơn giản được tạo ra ngay ở thời kỳ đầu mới xuất hiện thị trường, hàng hóa phái sinh dần trở nên đa dạng hơn, mang những đặc điểm ngày càng phức tạp nhằm đáp ứng tối đa nhu cầu của người sử dụng.

Ngày nay, người ta có thể lựa chọn công cụ thích hợp nhất với mình từ rất nhiều loại hàng hóa phái sinh khác nhau, bao gồm từ

Hợp đồng kỳ hạn (forward contracts): hợp động kết thúc trong 1 thời hạn định trước trong tương lai ở cà phê là các kỳ hạn tháng 3 ,5, 7, 9,11,1

Hợp đồng tương lai (futures): hợp đồng định trước mua bán sẽ giao dịch trong 1 điểm nào đó trong tương lai.

Hợp đồng quyền chọn (options): là hơp đồng giúp người mua bán có quyền chọn mua trước bán sau hay bán trước mua sau tùy theo nhu cầu nhận định của nhà đầu tư.

Và thị trương hàng hóa phái sinh dần dần phát triển ra khá đa dạng công cụ trợ giúp cho nhà đầu tư nông dân và doanh nghiệp có 1 công cụ hiểu quả để bảo vệ rủi ro và tìm kiếm lợi nhuận cho mình.

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